Ovariectomy or "spaying" in cattle is a surgical procedure performed to avoid unwanted pregnancy of animals in areas where females cannot be segregated from males and where extensive grazing conditions prohibit control of estrus through feed additives. The CVMA considers flank ovariectomy, if performed without anesthesia, to be inhumane. Ovariectomy by colpotomy is the preferred technique. When ovariectomy is deemed necessary the procedure should be performed using anesthesia and analgesics along with aseptic technique. Research leading to new or improved techniques that reduce or eliminate pain and discomfort associated with ovariectomy, or development of viable alternatives to ovariectomy, is encouraged.